Beginner’s Guide to Cryptocurrency


Several thousand bitcoins were used to buy a pizza in the early days of its introduction in 2009. Since then, the cryptocurrency’s remarkable surge to US$65,000 in April 2021, following a heart-stopping 70 percent dip to roughly US$6,000 in mid-2018, has baffled many individuals, including cryptocurrency investors, traders, and the just inquisitive who missed the boat.

How it all started

Remember that unhappiness with the present banking system prompted the creation of digital money. Satoshi Nakamoto, a pseudonym presumably used by a developer or group of developers, developed this cryptocurrency using blockchain technology.

Despite numerous predictions that cryptocurrency will die, bitcoin’s performance has spawned several alternative digital currencies, particularly in recent years. The popularity of crowdfunding made possible by blockchain mania attracted those looking to defraud the unwary public, which regulators have noticed.

Tokens, coins, and altcoins

Apart from bitcoin, many additional digital currencies have been inspired by Bitcoin, and there are now over 1,000 other types of digital coins and tokens. They are not all the same, and their values and liquidity vary substantially.

It’s enough to mention that there are subtle differences between coins, altcoins, and tokens at this moment. Alternative coins, or altcoins, are digital currencies other than the pioneering bitcoin. Altcoins like as ethereum, litecoin, ripple, dogecoin, and dash are considered “major” coins, meaning they are traded on more cryptocurrency exchanges.

Coins serve as a medium of exchange or a store of value, whereas tokens serve as an asset or utility, such as a blockchain service for supply chain management that validates and tracks wine goods from the vineyard to the customer.

It’s worth noting that low-value tokens or coins provide upside potential, but don’t expect parabolic growth like bitcoin. Before investing in a cryptocurrency, research the value proposition and technological concerns in relation to the commercial plans mentioned in each initial coin offering (ICO) white paper.

It’s similar to an initial public offering, or IPO, for people familiar with stocks and shares. Companies with tangible assets and a track record, on the other hand, issue IPOs. It’s all done in a controlled atmosphere. An ICO, on the other hand, is based only on a concept offered in a white paper by a startup company that has yet to begin operations and has no assets.

Buyers need to be careful since it is unregulated.

‘What is unknown cannot be regulated,’ is arguably the best way to describe the situation with digital money. Cryptocurrencies are constantly changing, and regulators and legislation are still attempting to catch up. In the crypto world, the golden rule is ‘caveat emptor,’ or buyer beware.

Some nations are maintaining an open mind about cryptocurrency and blockchain technologies, taking a hands-off approach while keeping a watch on outright frauds. Regulators in other nations, on the other hand, are more concerned with the disadvantages of digital money than the benefits. Regulators are usually aware of the need to find a balance, and some are looking at current securities regulations to attempt to keep up with the many flavors of cryptocurrencies throughout the world.

The first step: digital wallets

To get started with bitcoin, you’ll need a wallet. Consider e-banking with the added benefit of legal protection in the case of virtual currency, thus security is the first and last consideration in the crypto world.

Digital wallets are available. Wallets are divided into two categories.

Hot wallets are Internet-connected wallets that put users at danger of being hacked.
Cold wallets are considered safer since they are not connected to the Internet.
Apart from the two major types of wallets, there are wallets that only support one cryptocurrency and others that support many currencies. A multi-signature wallet is also available, which is equivalent to having a shared account with a bank. The user’s wallet of choice is determined by whether the user’s interest is just in bitcoin or ethereum, as each currency has its own wallet, or you may use a third-party wallet with security measures.

Wallet notations

A public and private key, as well as personal transaction data, are included in the bitcoin wallet. The public key contains information about the bitcoin account or address, similar to the name necessary to accept a cheque payment.

The public key is visible to everyone, but transactions are only confirmed once they have been verified and validated using the consensus method for each coin.

The PIN that is widely used in e-financial transactions might be considered the private key. As a result, the user should never share the private key with anybody and make backups of the data that should be kept offline.

It makes sense to keep a small quantity of bitcoin in a hot wallet and a larger amount in a cold wallet. It’s the same as losing your Bitcoin if you lose your private key! The standard precautions for online financial transactions apply, such as using strong passwords and being aware of viruses and phishing.

Formats for wallets

Individual tastes can be accommodated by a variety of wallets.

Hardware wallets that must be obtained from third parties. These gadgets function similarly to a USB device that is certified secure and only connects to the Internet when necessary.

Hot wallets are web-based wallets that put consumers at risk, such as those supplied by crypto exchanges.
Software-based wallets for desktops and mobile devices are generally free and may be given by coin issuers or other parties.
The important data about the cryptocurrency possessed, as well as public and private keys in QR code format, may be printed on paper-based wallets. These should be maintained in a secure location until they are needed in a crypto transaction, and copies should be prepared in case of mishaps such as water damage or printed data fading over time.

Exchanges and markets for cryptocurrencies
Crypto exchanges are trading platforms for virtual currency enthusiasts. Other possibilities include websites that allow buyers and sellers to trade directly, as well as brokers that do not use a’market’ pricing but instead rely on agreement between the parties to the transaction.

As a result, there are several crypto exchanges in various nations, each with its own set of security methods and infrastructure. They range from those that allow for anonymous registration to those that only require an email address to register an account and begin trading. Others, on the other hand, impose international identity verification and anti-money laundering (AML) requirements on users.

The user’s choice of cryptocurrency exchange is personal, although anonymous exchanges may have trading restrictions or be subject to unexpected new rules in the nation where the exchange is based. Users can start trading right away with minimal administrative procedures and anonymous registration, although KYC and AML processes will take longer.

All cryptocurrency trades must be processed and validated, which can take anywhere from a few minutes to several hours, depending on the coins or tokens being traded and the magnitude of the trade. With cryptocurrencies, scalability is a known challenge, and developers are striving to find a solution.

There are two types of cryptocurrency exchanges.


Fiat-cryptocurrency purchases can be made using direct bank transfers, credit and debit cards, or ATMs in some countries.
Only cryptocurrencies
Customers must already hold a cryptocurrency — such as bitcoin or ethereum — to be ‘exchanged’ for other coins or tokens at market rate on crypto exchanges that exclusively deal in cryptocurrency.
To enable the acquisition and trade of crypto currencies, fees are levied. Users should conduct research to ensure that the infrastructure and security measures are satisfactory, as well as to identify the costs with which they are comfortable, as different exchanges charge different rates.

Users should consider precautions such as two factor authentication, or 2-FA, staying up to speed on the newest security measures, and being mindful of phishing schemes while doing financial transactions online. No matter how genuine a message or email appears to be, one golden rule of phishing is to never click on links given.